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Testicular Cancer and Treatment
  • 2022-06-15 16:19:58
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Testicular Cancer and Treatment

What are the risk factors in testicular tumors?
Undescended testis
Reduction of spermatogenesis or infertility
Testicular Tumor Family Story, (Sister/Father)
The presence of testicular tumor on the other side.
What complaints do patients with tumor tumor?
Painless mass in bags and eggs: Malignant is considered until otherwise proved.
Pain (20-27% can accompany patients)
Gynecomastia 7% (more common in non -seminoma tumors)
    Waist and flank pain 11 %(if the tumor is spread to these regions, there may be pain)
    Orchitis (10%patient may be accompanied by testicular inflammation)
How is the diagnosis of testicular tumors?
    In testicular cancer, the diagnosis is usually made by physical examination. In general, it is painless, unilateral scrotum. If there is a suspicion of a mass in the testis, this is considered as a malignant disease until otherwise proved. 20-30 %of patients also have pain outside the mass. Pain may be due to bleeding or secondary inflammation into the tumor in 10 %cases.
    SKROTAL US (99%)
    Serum tumor determinants
        AFP, B-HCG, LDH
Which diseases can testicular tumors mix?
    Epididymoorchitis, hydrons, testicular torsion, spermatocele, hematocele, inguinal hernia, hamatoma, epidermoid cyst
How to treat testicular tumors?
    Once the physical examination, ultrasound and tumor markers are made, it is necessary to take the testis that there is a tumor if the tumor is strong. The testicular is removed by surgical operation over the groin called inguinal orchiectomy. The resulting testicular texture is sent to pathology. According to the results of pathology, the disease is staged. For this purpose, lung tomography, all abdominal CT/ MR, tumor markers are checked. The disease is stored and additional treatment is planned accordingly.
How to staging in testicular tumors?
    Staging is very important in terms of planning appropriate treatment and obtaining information about prognosis. “Today, the recommended staging system is the TNM system. Although there is no detectionable disease, the high serem tumor determinants after orchiectomy should bring to mind metastasis or residu disease. The fact that tumor determinants have decreased to normal after orchiectomy does not indicate that there is no tumor metastasis.
Clinical staging
    Stage I: Limited in tumor testis
    Stage II A: Having <2cm lymph nodule in the abdomen
    Stage II B: In the abdomen> 2cm, <5 cm lymph nodulum
    Stage II C: Having> 5 cm lymph nodules in the abdomen
    Stage III: Supraklaviks or mediastinal lymph gland involvement
    Stage IV: Having another organ involvement
Surgical Treatment: Retroperitoneal lymph nodule dissection (RPLND) can be applied in men with advanced or high -risk cancer.
Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy drugs can be applied to treat cancer cells spread out of the testis.
Radiation therapy: Radiotherapy can be performed in patients with some testicular cancer. It can also be used with radiotherapy chemotherapy in some patients with metastases or not suitable for surgery.
  The page content is only for informational purposes, you should consult your doctor for diagnosis and treatment.