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Diagnosis and treatment of bladder (urinary bladder) cancers
  • 2022-06-15 16:20:57
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Diagnosis and treatment of bladder (urinary bladder) cancers

What is bladder? The bladder, also known as the bladder or urinary bladder, is located in the lower part of the abdomen and is a sphere in which the urine accumulates. The kidneys use small channels called ureter to remove toxin substances in the blood after cleaning the body. The urine comes to the bladder via small channels and stored here until it is thrown out of the body.
What is bladder cancer? In case of uncontrolled proliferation of the cells that make up the wall of the bladder, bladder cancer occurs. These tumors are usually watched on the inner surface of the bladder in the appearance of a fluffy cauliflower from the surface. Bladder cancer is 3 types;
    1. Urropyal Carcinoma: A type of cancer seen in cells covering the bladder wall.
    2. flat epithelial cell carcinoma: A type of cancer consisting of flat epithelial cells of the bladder exposed to long -term infection or irritation.
    3. Adenocarcinoma: A type of cancer seen in secretion cells in the bladder. It occurs as a result of abnormal proliferation of cells responsible for the mucus in the bladder wall.
    Most of bladder cancers are superficially superficial.
    75 %superficial (bladder is limited to mucosa and submucosa)
    15-25 %Invasive (spread to muscle layer or lymph nodes)
     15 %Metastatic
  What are the causes of bladder cancer?
    Male sex (3-4 times more seen in men than women)
    Cigarette (2 -fold increased risk, depending on 50 %of cases in men depending on the dose, 31 %of women)
    Some carcinogenic substances in urine
    Exposure to industrial carcinogens
    Pelvic radiotherapy
    Chronic inflammation of the bladder mucosa (bladder stone, long -term catheter)
What are the subtypes of bladder cancers?
    Epithelial tumors 98 %
        Changeful epithelial cell cancer (TCC) 90 %
        Squamous cell cancer 3-7 %
        Adenocanbery 1 %
        Mixing Tumor 4-6 %
    NON-EPitelial Tumors 2 %
  What symptoms of bladder cancers give?
    Hematuria (85 %) is the most common symptom. It may be microscopic or macroscopic.
    Male over 60 years of age, clotted, painless bleeding should bring the bladder tumor to the first reason
    Bladder irritation symptoms (20%): burning in urine, frequent urine sensation, sudden urine, urine often at night.
    Obstructive complaints: If he has held the kidney channel, swelling and side pain in the kidneys may be prostate -like complaints if he holds the prostatic area.
    Complaints due to metastasis: weight loss, loss of appetite, weakness, anemia and cough.
What are the differential diagnosis of bladder cancer?
    Bladder inflammation, prostate enlargement, over -acting bladder, kidney tumors, kidney channel tumors, bladder and kidney channel stones.
How is the diagnosis of Meane cancer?
    Abdominopelvic ultrasonography (USG)
    Intravenous Pyelography (IVP).
    Abdominopelvik CT (CT urography): The probability of being a tumor in the upper urinary system at the same time is 1.8 %. In the tumor trigon, this risk is 7.5 %and the risk is high if there is a multiple and recurrent
    Cystoscopy: The bladder is entered into the bladder with a fine light tool on the urinary tract. The bladder is observed directly. Detailed information is obtained about the presence, number and location of the tumor. The bladder tumors detected at the time of cystoscopy are completely cleaned in the same session. For this purpose, a tumor tissue with a tool called aistetoscope is cut by cutting it to be included in the base and its surroundings.
 How to treat bladder cancer?
    Treatment in the bladder tumor that does not spread superficially:
If the superficial bladder tumors (TA, T1, CIS) are not aggressive, if the single and small tumor is not a tumor before, if not a recurrence tumor, the drug can be applied into the bladder after the tumor is completely scraped. So it may be necessary to perform cystoscopy at regular intervals.
    Treatment in cash invase bladder tumors:
        Radical Cymadctomy: Radical system surgery is performed in which the tumors that have reached the muscle base but not further go further if the patient's general condition is appropriate for surgery (prostate in men and women in men) where the bladder is completely taken for surgery. After the bladder is taken, a new bladder is created from the patient's intestines and the urinary canals (ureters) from the kidney are connected to this new pouch. This urinary bladder is connected to the skin either to the normal external urine canal (urethra) or the abdomen side.
        Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy and radiotherapy options can be applied to patients who cannot be performed. When bladder cancer spreads to other organs, chemotherapy and radiotherapy can be applied if necessary.
The page content is only for informational purposes, you should consult your doctor for diagnosis and treatment.