In this article, I will talk about the concepts of id, ego and superego that Freud has put forward, which is the basis of personality development in psychology.
According to Freud, the self is divided into 3 layers. Id is the primitive self or lower self, ego, self and superego, upper self. When a person is born, he exists with his primitive self and develops ego and superego over time.
Id, ie primitive self, according to primitive impulses. He does not look for logic or rules. Instinctive movements. It acts according to the principle of pleasure, that is, its main purpose is to reach the satisfaction of the impulses. For example, we can show babies. Since there is no ego development yet; They behave with primitive behaviors to satisfy their impulses. When he gets hungry, he wants to eat immediately, he does when he comes to the toilet, he does it when he wants to remove gas or when he wants to shimp, he would be uncomfortable if he can't, I wonder if I am in the community right now. Of course, it is quite normal to act with primitive self in infancy. However, after becoming an adult, it is a problem that the ego could not do it at the point where it should control it and continue to live according to primitive impulses.
EGO; It is the mechanism that reminds me that there are some rules of the primitive self to reach pleasure. It is a kind of regulatory, tries to balance between the pleasure of the human inner world and the realities of the outside world. For example, in a meeting, someone who is very hungry in a meeting immediately runs and start looking for something to eat for him, waiting for the end of the meeting before the end of the ego control is a condition. The ego slowly begins to develop in childhood. Both the impulses are realized and the conditions in the outside world are understood.
Superego; It is a whole of human values. Rights, respect, shame, prohibition and so on. represents concepts. What is right, what is wrong, which movements are accepted by the society, which ones are punished, what is shame and so on. The formation and internalization of the concepts in the mind. Thus, the person learns to act with these value judgments, even if no one around him. It is a rather suppressive mechanism and is identified with feelings such as conscience, guilt and shame. It begins to develop at the age of 5-6.
EGO and supergo layers are then formed, but with their formation, id does not disappear completely. There are 3 layers in each person, only their balance may vary from person to person. In a healthy adult, the impulses of the ids are met at a level that can be tolerated, and the pressure of the supergon is shaped together with value judgments that will not put the person in trouble. In some cases, more impulsive can be treated, but in general, it is acted in harmony with the outside world and has certain value judgments. For example, in a situation where we are extremely hungry, we can postpone all our other works by not thinking about anything other than eating at that moment and give priority to eat (id) but we still do this in harmony with the outside world (EGO), because we do not go to a person we do not know, We know that this is the wrong behavior (Superego).
The excessive dominance of a part of the self causes various problems. For example, people who live as raid constantly; Usually, there are individuals who do not respect others, think of their own interests and act accordingly, who do not hesitate to fight, try every way to get what they want, and do not tolerate the prevention, who cannot postpone the sense of pleasure, who want to have what they want instantly.
People who are dominant in the superego; They become individuals who are extremely dependent on social values and feel the necessity to comply with them in a strict manner, perfectionist, who cannot reveal their emotions, shy, need to get continuous approval, and exhaust what other people think and say about themselves.
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